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City of Nineveh
Jonah 1:2 - Arise go to Nineveh that great city
 
Sennecherib Prism
Sennacherib's Prism mentions Nineveh as the capitol of his empire.
 
Prism of Esarhaddon
Stone prism of Esarhaddon. Neo-Assyrian, 680-669 BC
From Mesopotamia. British Museum.
 
Fall of Nineveh
Cuneiform tablet with a
description of the fall of Nineveh. British Museum.
 
History
Today, Nineveh's location is marked by two large mounds, Kouyunjik and Nabi Yunus "Prophet Jonah", and the remains of the city walls (about 12 km/7.5 mi in circumference). Kouyunjik has been extensively explored. The other mound, Nabi Yunus, has not been extensively explored because there is a Muslim shrine dedicated to that prophet on the site.

In the 19th century, the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon, which were largely explored for sculptures and other precious relics.

In 1847 the young British adventurer Sir Austen Henry Layard explored the ruins. In the Kuyunjik mound Layard rediscovered in 1849 the lost palace of Sennacherib across the Tigris River from modern Mosul in northern Iraq, with its 71 rooms and colossal bas-reliefs. He also unearthed the palace and famous library of Ashurbanipal with 22,000 inscribed clay tablets. The study of the archaeology of Nineveh reveals the wealth and glory of ancient Assyria under kings such as Esarhaddon (681-669 B.C.) and Ashurbanipal (669-626 B.C.).

The excavations started again in 1927, under the direction of Campbell Thompson, who had already taken part in King's expeditions. These excavations, however, were rather unfortunate. Some works were carried out outside Kouyunjik, for instance on the mound of Nebi Yunus, which was the ancient arsenal of Nineveh, or along the outside walls. Here, near the North-Western corner of the walls, beyond the pavement of a later building, the archaeologists found almost 300 fragments of prisms recording the royal annals of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, besides a prism of Esarhaddon which was almost perfect.

Sennacherib's Prism- Column6
"after I had completed the palace in the midst of the city of Nineveh for my royal residence" Full translation of the Prism

The Fall of Nineveh Chronicle
"The twelfth year [614-613]: In the month Âbu the Medes, after they had matched against Nineveh, hastened and they captured Tarbisu, a city in the district of Nineveh"

"Those Assyrians I mean who dwelt at Nineveh, and who formerly had been rulers of the whole, but at that time they were left without support their allies having revolted from them, though at home they were prosperous enough." Herodotus Histories - Book 1

Scriptures
Jonah 1:2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

Zephaniah 2:13 And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria; and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness.

2 Kings 19:36 So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.