The biblical books of Samuel report that Moab had been conquered by David and
was retained in the territories of Solomon (d. 931 B.C.E). The Mesha Stele,
also known as the Moabite Stone, indicates that it was still under the dominion
of Israelite Kings based at Samaria a century later.
Mesha appears to have fought successfully for the freedom of Moab from Israel
as the Moabite Stone, which dates from c.850 B.C.E, indicates. 2 Kings 3:4 states
that "King Mesha of Moab was a sheep breeder, who used to deliver to the
king of Israel one hundred thousand lambs, and the wool of one hundred thousand
rams", but also that he later rebelled against Jehoram, then king of the
Northern Kingdom of Israel.
The Mesha Stele (popularized in the 19th century as the "Moabite Stone")
is a black basalt stone, bearing an inscription by the 9th century BC Moabite
King Mesha, discovered in 1868. The inscription of 34 lines, the most extensive
inscription ever recovered from ancient Palestine, was written in Hebrew-Phoenician
characters. It was set up by Mesha, about 850 BC, as a record and memorial of
his victories in his revolt against Israel, which he undertook after the death
of his overlord, Ahab.
The Moabite Stone is 124 cm high and 71 cm
wide and deep, and rounded at the top. It was
discovered at the ancient Dibon now Dhiban,
Jordan, in August 1868, by Rev. F. A. Klein,
a German missionary in Jerusalem. The stele
now resides in the Louvre museum in France.
Translation of the Moabite
From Ancient Near East - Volume I - ANET
"I am Mesha, son of Chemosh, King of
Moab the Dibonite my father had reigned over
Moab thirty years. As for Omri, King of Israel,
he humbled Moab many years, for Chemosh was
angry at his land"
Omri and Mesha
The identifications of the biblical Mesha, King of Moab, and of the biblical
Omri, King of the northern kingdom of Israel, in the Mesha Stele are generally
accepted by the scholarly community, especially because what is said about
them in the narrative of the Mesha Stele agrees well with the narrative in
the biblical books of Kings and Chronicles.
2 Kings 3:4 And Mesha
King of Moab was a sheepmaster,
and rendered unto the king of Israel
an hundred thousand lambs, and an
hundred thousand rams,
with the wool.
2 Kings 8:26 Athaliah,
the daughter of Omri
King of Israel.