Aramaic Inscription of Zakar, King of Hamath
This important monument, published by the discoverer H. Pognon in 1907, makes
a significant reference in lines four and five to Benhadad II. Under the Aramaic
form of the name, "Barhadad, son of Hazael, king of Aram" is presented
as heading a coalition of twelve to eighteen kings against "Zakir, king
of Hamath and Lu'ash". The operations of the confederacy, in which only
seven of the kings take part, as Zakir expressly mentions, are directed against
Hazrek (biblical Hadrach of Zechariah 9:1), the capital city of Lu'ash, a north
Syrian principality southwest of Aleppo, and north of Hamath on the Orontes.
The Translation of the Inscription
- Line 17
01. ...... Hazrak ....
02. ...... for chariotry and cavalry ...
03. ...... its king within it I ....
04. ...... Hazrak, and I added ....
05. ...... all the circuit ....
06. ...... and I set him as king ....
07. ...... ...... ...... ......
08. ...... these enemies in all its midst
09. I built gods' houses in all
10. ...... and I built
12. ...... house ....
13. ...... I set before [El-
14. Ur] this stele and in[sribed
15. i]t with the writing of my hands.
16. [And] whosoever will remove the wri[ting
17. of the hands of Zakar king of Hamath and La-
18. ash from this stele, and whosoever
19. will remove this stele from [be-
20. fore] El-Ur, and disturb it [from
21. its] place, or whosoever will lay upon [it
22. his hand] .... [shall curse him?]
23. [the Lor]d of Heaven and El-
24. [Ur] ..... and Sun and Moon
25. ...... and the gods of heaven
26. [and the gods of] earth, and Baal of Laa-
Another famous artifact known as the Kirk Monolith, from Shalmaneser,
contains the name and title "Iruleni King of Hamath"
This inscription of the Assyrian King Sargon discovered
in the ruins of Khorsabad, Iraq lists several names of royalty and citizens associated
with the city of Hamath.
Line 12 reads: "Jaubid of Hamath, a smith, was not the legitimate master
of the throne, he was an infidel and an impious man, and he had coveted the royalty
Line 60 reads: "Irkhulina of Hamath"
Line 88 reads: "The land of the Hamathites"
Pileser III - Campaigns Against Syria - ANET
Building inscription of Tilgath Pileser - "Enil
Isaiah 37:13 Where
is the King
and the King of Arphad, and the king
of the city of Sepharvaim, Hena, and
1 Chronicles 18:3 And
David smote Hadarezer King of Zobah unto Hamath,
as he went to stablish
dominion by the river Euphrates.
2 Samuel 8:9 When
of Hamath heard
that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer.