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King Artaxerxes
Ezr 7:1 Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia
 
The tombs of Darius the Great and Artaxexes with inscriptions from Darius.
The tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam. The tombs of Darius the Great and Artaxexes with inscriptions from Darius.
 
The tomb of Artaxerxes I
The tomb of Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rustam.
 
Silver bowl with the inscription "Artaxerxes King of Kings" British Museum.
Silver bowl with the inscription "Artaxerxes King of Kings" British Museum.
 
Ruins from the Palace of Artaxerxes at Persepolis.
Ruins from the Palace of Artaxerxes at Persepolis.
 
History
Artaxerxes I was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. His name is mentioned numerous times in the Bible, in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. He allowed the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem.
 
 
Tomb of Artaxerxes - Naqsh-e Rustam
Naqsh-e Rustam is an archaeological site located about 3 km northwest of Persepolis, Iran. The center of the Archaemenid Dynasty.

Naqsh-e Rustam, contains seven tombs which belong to the Achaemenian kings. One of those at Naqsh-e Rustam is expressly declared in its inscriptions to be the tomb of Darius I. The three other tombs, besides that of Darius I, are those of Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II.

Darius the Great's Inscription at Naqsh-e Rustam

"I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of countries containing all kinds of men"

Compare that with Ezra 7:12 which Artaxerxes wrote. He was from the same dynasty of Darius and ruled after him.

Ezra 7:12 Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest. Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.
 
 

Silver Bowls of Artaxerxes
This silver bowl (pictured on the left) has an inscription of Artaxerxes I in Old Persian cuneiform around the inner rim:

"Artaxerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of countries, son of Xerxes the king, of Xerxes who was son of Darius the king, the Achaemenian, in whose house this silver drinking cup was made."

This bowl is one of four similar examples found before 1935.

 
 
Persepolis - Home of the Persian Kings
Persepolis is the greatest surviving set of ruins of ancient Near Eastern civilizations, and its scale and grandeur is magnificent. It burned down when Alexander the Great visited in 330BC because, despite being made mostly of stone, the roof had wooden timbers and when the fire raged these burned, melting the iron clamps that held the columns in place.

The remains of Persepolis include bas-reliefs and sculptures that provide an insight into the hearts and beliefs of the ancient Iranians. It can be seen that the buildings at Persepolis are divided into three areas, military quarters, the treasury and the reception and occasional houses for King of Kings. These included the Great Stairway, the Gate of Nations (Xerxes), Apadana palace of Darius, the Hall of a Hundred Columns, the Tripylon Hall and Tachara palace of Darius, the Hadish palace of Xerxes, palace of Artaxerxes, the Imperial Treasury, the Royal Stables and the Chariot house.
 
 

The Historian Herodotus on Artaxerxes- The Histories 484 B.C.
"Darius the son of Hystaspes and Xerxes the son of Darius and Artoxerxes the son of Xerxes" - Book 6 : 98

"The Argives at that time sent envoys to Susa, and these asked Artoxerxes the son of Xerxes, if the friendship still remained" - Book 7:151

 
 

The Elephantine Papyris
From Ancient Near East Texts - Volume I - ANET

"On the 21st of Chisleu, that is the 1st of Mesore, year 6 of King Artaxerxes, a Jew of Elephantine, of the detachment of Haumadata, said to Jeziniah. - Mibtahiah's First Marriage

"On the 25th of Tishri, that is the 6th day of the month Epiphi, year.... of King Artaxerxes" - Contract of Mibahiah's Third Marriage

 
 

Scriptures
Ezra 7:12 Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest. Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.

Ezra 8:1
These are now the chief of their fathers, and this is the genealogy of them that went up with me from Babylon, in the reign of Artaxerxes the king.

Ezra 6:12 according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes King of Persia.